Sawing wood is a technological operation, as a result of which the workpiece acquires the desired shape. Its surface is smoothed, though not yet enough, to paint it or polish it.
Depending on the type of files used, we distinguish between coarse and smoothing (finishing). For rough sawing, files called rasps are used. They are tools, on whose surface coarse or crosswise serrations have been incised (often oblique) grooves. The teeth of the file cut the surface of the wood. The sawdust resulting from sawing is thicker, the larger the teeth of the file. For finishing sawing, cutter files are used, which differ from rasps only in the size of the teeth.
Any type of wood or wood-based material can be processed with files regardless of the direction of the fibers. However, let's pay attention, similar to planing, on the grain of the processed wood and try to maintain the same relationship between the direction of sawing and the grain direction.
The figure shows the cross-sections of the most commonly used files.
We use flat and triangular files for machining flat external and internal surfaces, while round and flat-convex – for machining rounded surfaces, inside edges of holes etc.. You can proceed freely here and choose both file sizes, as well as its shape. However, it should be remembered, never to use a file to use a file on a planed wood surface, because it is easy to spoil it then. However, only sandpaper should be used to finish it.
When sawing, the workpiece must be securely fastened. Hold the file with your right hand on the wooden handle, the left hand – for the end of the file. In this position, we make reciprocating movements with the file, remembering, to press the file against the workpiece when moving the file away from you, while pushing the file towards you, raise it slightly. This way of working is the most appropriate, for the movement apart is a work movement (the file teeth are tilted forward), while the return of the file is idle.
When sawing, when working with moist or resinous wood, the teeth of the file are stuck with finer sawdust and after some time the file stops processing the material. Sharp tools must not be used to clean the teeth, because we will not restore the file to working efficiency this way, and we will only dull its edge. Instead, you have to immerse the file in hot water for a few minutes. The sawdust under the teeth will swell and can then be easily removed with a plastic brush.