Finishing materials for floors - pastes, waxes and varnishes.
Materials for finishing wood floors can be divided into traditional and modern. The former include oil paints, pastes and waxes. Painting floors with oil paints is almost completely out of fashion and can still be found occasionally in country houses. A common form of securing wooden floors is polishing and waxing.
Pastes have many advantages,,the most important of which is the simplicity of their use. The paste includes wax, paraffin and turpentine or gasoline. In addition, some pastes may contain other ingredients, how: dye, kalafonia, stearyna, calcium dietate etc.. Before polishing or waxing, the floor can be saturated with varnish or shellac varnish.
The advantage of traditional finishing materials is their harmlessness to health. Volatile solvent substances contained in pastes and waxes do not pose any health risk. They volatilize very quickly and leave no side chemicals behind.
Contemporary floor finishing materials include mainly varnishes and chemically hardened enamels. They are characterized by good adhesion to the substrate and a short drying time. For painting parquet and mosaic floors, a chemosil or "Chematosil" chemically hardening varnish is used. These are two-component varnishes. To obtain a working mixture, the varnish requires the use of a hardener called "Utosil". The consistency of the varnish is adapted to brush painting. If spray painting is used, the varnish should be diluted with a thinner for chemically hardened products.
Usually approx 0,20 l thinner. "Chemosil" gives glossy coatings, while "Chematosil" semi-matte.
Chemically hardening enamels for wood are also two-component products. They consist of an enamel and a hardener. Enamels also dry quickly, create high gloss coatings, hard and resistant to abrasion and periodic water, podwyższonych temperature, dilute acids, lyes, alcohols and organic solvents.
In order to protect the wood against darkening under chemically hardened products, use a base varnish called "Capon". Capon is applied to the floor with a brush in one layer. On the other hand, varnish and chemically hardened enamel are applied in three layers. In this way, a sufficiently thick coating layer is obtained, protecting the floor for at least a few years.
All modern means of finishing wooden surfaces, chemically curable varnishes in particular are more or less harmful to health, especially for children. The period of harmfulness depends on the rate of volatilization of harmful substances contained in them. Therefore, before each use of these products, read the label containing in addition to the recipe for use, also health and safety recommendations.
In recent years, a number of private manufacturers have appeared in Poland, producing varnishes for wooden floors. Many of them enjoy a good reputation. However, there are cases of their poor quality, exfoliation, poor adhesion to the substrate, etc.. Therefore, when purchasing varnishes from an unknown source, it is a good idea to test them first.