Lining the stairs with wood with solid steps
Lining solid stairs, i.e.. with steps and footrests is a relatively difficult job. The steps with the footrests are connected with each other by means of grooves and semi-grooves (drawing).
Drawing. Sections: 1 - degree, 2 - footrest
If the stairs are of the cheek type (side log carriers, between which there are steps and footrests) then the steps and footrests should be carefully cut to length. Assembling them is more difficult.
Great attention should be paid to determining the width of the footrest (step height). The height of the individual concrete steps is only measured for control purposes. The basis for comparison is the step height modulus resulting from the ratio of the level difference between landings (podestami) and the number of steps. It becomes necessary to make a drawing at least to scale 1:10. To the specified height of the footrest, a specific size for the grooves should be added. It is recommended to make a few footrests 1-2 cm wider, against, if any of the degrees were higher than the calculated one, which happens very often. The concrete cannot be cut and then there is nothing else but a higher level leveling of adjacent ones, lower. As long as the difference is not greater than 10 mm, it is not felt visually and when entering. Differences over 15 mm in the height of the steps should be considered a serious mistake.
Determining the width of the step is also very important. This value is taken from the widest degree (concrete), to it is added the width of the joint with the footrest and a margin of 15-20 mm. This stock is essential, because concrete, the vertical walls of the steps are usually uneven, inaccurate and difficult to beat.
Drawing. Taped step and footrest position: 1 - asphalt-tar binder (Lepar), 2 - slot behind the footrest.
Machining is carried out prior to assembly, makes joints (drawing), rounds the edges, accurately cuts the steps and footrest to length and varnishes. Two layers of varnish coating, the first one is placed before, and the other after assembly.
The assembly of steps and footrests is a long and laborious operation.
The side of the first, the lower footrest fits underneath, so, so that the bottom edge of the half-groove is flush and flush with the first step. The level is monitored along and across the step with a precise spirit level. The first footrest is screwed with two screws or screws with plastic dowels (the following footrests are not screwed down). Then the width of the step is controlled by applying it "dry".
If the step is not flush with the concrete (deviations are more than 1 mm), plywood or hard fibreboard washers are used.
For gluing, Lepar asphalt compacted mass for parquet gluing or Mazolep glue can be used.. The binder is applied in an even layer, 1-3 mm thick, over the entire concrete surface of the step. Then wood glue is introduced (wikol) a step is placed in the groove and on the tongue of the footrest, pressing the whole thing down with the foot. This is how the first step is embedded. If the material is well dried, there is no need to screw the steps and footrests to the concrete.
A further footrest is then adjusted; if there is such a need - it is tapered. You will need a circular saw for this, to cut a new half-key. The width of the footrest is determined by the level of the next step. You should remember about the need to control the level in two directions. After adjusting the footrest, the groove is coated with glue and seated in the step. The tightness of the tongue in the groove should be such, so that it does not free itself after settling. The feather, however, must not be too wide, so that it is not damaged when tapped. For tapping the footrests, it is good to prepare a properly profiled hardwood pad.
Once the footrest is in place, the next step is adjusted, selects washers, applies asphalt binder on concrete and glue on the groove. The gaps between the footrest and the vertical concrete wall of the step are not to be filled or put under. The assembly of further steps and footrests is similar.
If the stairs form a narrow corridor (wall to wall steps) first, appropriately contoured cheeks are screwed to the walls. The cheeks are cut according to the template of concrete steps. When installing stairs, in addition to precisely adjusting the height of the footrests, There will be more adjustments to the length of individual steps and footrests, from cheek to cheek. The play between the step and the footrest and the cheek should not be greater than 0,5 mm.
If the staircase is limited by a wall on one side only, assembly begins with screwing the cheek to the wall. The opposite cheek is screwed to the front of the steps only after all the steps and footrests have been mounted. If all the steps and footrests are evenly cut to length, don't worry, that the cheek will not fit the stairs. In such cases, the outer cheek will be a uniform plank covering the foreheads of the steps and footrests, including a fragment of concrete steps.