In practice, there are many different ways of joining wooden elements. So we distinguish between nail joints, for screws, for dowels and glued joints. Of course, mixed connections are also used, for example, dowel joints reinforced with gluing, etc.. In addition, there are also so-called. carpentry joints, consisting in a special shaping of the ends of the connected elements yes, to increase the contact area (cap connector, forklifts etc.) or stiffen the connection (dovetail joints). At home, without specialized tools and milling attachments, it would be very difficult to make a correct dovetail joint, that would meet all the requirements. It is necessary to precisely select the finger cross-sections, in order to avoid excessive play which disqualifies the connection.
We will therefore deal with the corner flap joint (rys.a), cross-over connector (rys.b), fork coupling (rys.c) and spigot (rys.d).
We use the corner overlay connector everywhere, where we want a strong connection of the two ends of wooden elements at an angle or length (although then the elements do not form a corner). In this join type, when joined, the elements form a single plane. Making such a connection, just like the rest, should be preceded by a very precise tracing and unambiguous marking of the pieces of wood, which need to be removed. Let's remember this, that she was drinking, which we will use, gives a kerf of a certain width. It must therefore be taken into account when routing.
After the material is immobilized, cut it with a ball across the fibers, The material to be removed should be chipped off with a sharp one, with the widest possible flat chisel. Wood splitting must not be performed in one go, to the full thickness of the future joint, because it will never be possible to carry out this procedure precisely enough. So it should be the last one, Peel off the already thin layer, for example, with a sharp knife (a pocket knife can be well sharpened), or file with a wood file, taking care of it, that the surface to be glued to the other part of the joint is as flat as possible, and at the same time parallel to the designated plane. However, this surface does not have to be perfectly smooth, because the glue will stick better to the rough surface. Proceed in the same way with the second part of the connector, then we adjust both surfaces to each other. Finally, the wood surfaces to be joined are lubricated with a suitable glue, press them together and press them with a carpenter's clamp or in a vice (always with washers made of wood!). If the joint is to be additionally reinforced with pins, with nails or screws, after gluing it, we do not have to clamp the wood in a vice when using nails or screws, however, in the case of reinforcement with wooden pegs, the connection should be tested before gluing, drill both parts together (drill holes for dowels) and adjust the diameter of the pins to the thickness of the joint. We must carefully coat the reinforcement pins with glue, then stick them into the holes, and then fix the entire joint until the adhesive is completely dry.
Cross cap connector (rys.b) it is used to connect intersecting elements. They are done in the same way, like a corner joint and also strengthens when necessary as before.
A fork joint is a bit more difficult to make (Lynx. c). You have to use a very sharp one here, with a narrow flat chisel, the width of which does not exceed one third of the width of the joint. First we trace the end of the connector with the cutout. For this purpose, clamp the wood vertically in a wooden vise of a planer or a carpentry board as close as possible to the work place. Then we draw and mark the wood to be removed. The joint is then cut along the grain with a saw, Finally, remove the unnecessary wood with the chisel. This should be done very carefully and carefully, because only extremely precisely prepared joint elements will stick properly after gluing. The second part of the joint is made much easier, also when using a saw and chisel. The width of the narrowed end of the element should be very carefully balanced with a file or knife. Exactly fitting parts of the fork joint, used very often in the production of all kinds of doors, sill-type windows with lamellas, glue and fold-eat with carpentry clamps.
The last type of simple and durable spigot joint (Lynx. d) we make with a chisel (making the socket) after drilling the space intended for the socket. Then we make a tenon, cutting wood like this, to make the spigot dimensions larger (by a tenth of a millimeter) on the dimensions of the socket. We glue the elements together and press the joint.
Connecting wooden elements with nails is perhaps the most popular, although not very aesthetic. The biggest problem here is the selection of nails with the right dimensions. Most broadly one can say, that the length of the nail should be so selected, to head part, so located in the upper element a, was half shorter than the lower part of the nail with a blade in element b. The same is the case with screws. One should strive not only for the same dependency, but also to try, to smooth part (cylindrical) the screw in part a, and the part with "thread" in element b. Worth knowing, that if "thread” of the screw was longer and crossed the line separating the joined elements, they would not be able to be tightened tightly with the screw together. Holes are drilled in places intended for screwing in screws. Their diameter for the cylindrical part should be the same as the screw diameter, while under the "threaded" part – slightly smaller than the screw core diameter.
When hammering nails into an angle joint, set them in such a way, that they are not completely parallel to the direction of the fibers in the material, into which they are hammered into the front surface, so in the figure in element b. This strengthens the nail setting in the wood.