Installation of wall panels from boards
Nailing the boards. The cladding boards are nailed with wheeler nails (with cylindrical, narrow head), length 30-40 mm, to an aligned grate. Drive the nail diagonally, into the inner crest of the gully.
The oblique direction of nailing is dictated by the need for covering and better sticking to the nails. A hammer should be used to hammer the nails, because the head of the nail, after being hammered, should be slightly recessed into the wood. The nail should not protrude above the surface of the wood as it will make it difficult to insert the next board into the groove. We also nail the first and the last board with wheeler nails (there is no other option).
If we want, so that these nails would not be visible either, we can adopt a different method of installing the first and last boards on the ceiling. First, we trim the boards for the entire first row. Apply glue to the grate slats, e.g.. wikol. Press the boards against the grate with punches, which we additionally wedge, that they adhere exactly to the glue. We assemble the last board in a similar way.
A lot of attention should be paid to finishing the cladding on the wall, because it is the fitter's showcase. Covering poorly fitted planks on the wall, the ceiling or floor with covering strips proves the mediocre skills of the foreman.
Such cladding is the most difficult to finish, whose boards extend from wall to wall. In such cases, there is nothing else to do but measure distances accurately and take it into account, that you will need every board, sometimes by a millimeter, shorten several times before reaching the required length.
In addition, the situation may be complicated by uneven walls forcing you to cut at an angle or along a wavy line.
Trim the plank just as carefully, that there is no gap at the wall, it is almost impossible. However, the gap should not be larger than 1 mm. On one side, all boards should be flush with the wall, and on the other with a slot to 1 mm. The butt-fit ends of the boards should be on the more visible side, exposed.
If the cladding is made up of several boards along its entire length, accurate trimming is easier. It is even easier with claddings with unequal length of elements, because a wrongly cut board can be used anywhere else.
When installing the first row, the side surface of the planks should be planed, because perfectly flat walls are rare.
The leading edges of the contact surfaces of the boards in the facing should be rounded to a radius of approx 1 mm, before painting. This u-convexity of the board contact is necessary, due to inaccuracies in the execution of joints, causing the upper planes not to be flush. Ceiling linings in particular are "sensitive" to non-flashing, because they are multiplied by lighting and the resulting shadows.
Installation of paneling in narrow rooms, e.g.. in the hallway or staircase, requires a different procedure. Length boards, e.g.. 1500—2000 mm, extending from wall to wall, can be installed between slats with a milled guide groove (drawing).
Drawing. Fixing boards in slats with grooves used in narrow rooms (longitudinal section identical to the vertical section)
The boards are inserted into the grooves of the slats by bending one end of the fixing strip (drawing).
Drawing. Sliding boards into slotted slats
The groove depth is 10 mm is enough for free laying of boards o 4 mm shorter than the distance between the grooves of the two guide strips. A groove in one of the guide rails at the end, along a length equal to the width of the last board, must be deepened, so that you can, without tilting the mounting bar, arrange the last board. However, so that it does not move and does not fall out, the ends of the grooves in both slats should be smeared with glue. You should also keep this in mind, that the last board must fit freely into the spline joint, because it is no longer possible to hit it with a hammer.
Fastening the ceiling cladding directly to wooden supports is only possible then, when all media are perfectly aligned (leveled). In practice, the deviations of the supporting beams can be as high as a few millimeters. In this case, new ones should be nailed to the side surfaces of the beams, carefully leveled, even slats and then attach the cladding to them (drawing).
Drawing. A method of leveling badly seated wooden ceiling beams with slats.
Corner finishing of pillars and ceiling beams is cumbersome due to the need to make complex elements and their assembly. The profiled corner element should have a common decorative motif with the facing boards. An example of such profiles is shown in the figure.
Drawing. Corner finish for the pillar lining: a) the top edges of the corner boards are bevelled at an angle, b) the connector has a domed groove.
During assembly, the corner joint should be glued together and pressed with carpentry clamps.
If there is a lighting switch or a power socket in the cladding in the covered areas, an appropriate hole for the box must be cut during the installation. The hole must be about 10 mm greater than the outside diameter of the can. During the installation of the cladding, the space between the bottom of the box and the wall, and the gap between the can and the wood, fill with gypsum mortar with addition of water-soluble glue, or putty for plasters. In this way, we will isolate the can from the wood. For fire safety reasons neither wires, nor the switch mechanism, not a can, must not come into contact with the wood. Leaving the socket or switch in the plaster and covering the hole in the cladding with slats is not very aesthetic.
Electrical system boxes are often covered when cladding walls. This should then be taken into account, that you may need access to them in the future. Therefore, before cladding, make a sketch of the wall with the coordinates of the can positions, and then mark their position directly on the cladding and mark it gently, e.g.. the letter "p".
Walls with external linings can be insulated by inserting expanded polystyrene boards between the grating slats. Styrofoam plate, e.g.. thickness 20 mm, provides thermal insulation identical to that of a brick wall in thickness 30 cm. If we do not fill this gap, the air contained in it will insulate the wall from external thermal conditions only to a small extent.